Efficient management of energy is possibly the most important contribution towards complying with the growth limits of the earth system. This requires a sustainable energy policy by public players and sustainable energy consumption in a global society. In South Korea, sustainable energy policy forms part of the first priority strategies and includes restructuring the energy industry, energy saving, redesigning energy price systems, speeding up the development and dissemination of new energy technologies. The energy policy is a "best practice case study" for German energy policy as well, it is a model worthy of imitation: a complete turn-around for a country in energy matters. It is based on a holistic approach using effective legal mechanisms and a range of systematic energy planning measures. South Korea is using an instrument package in which far-reaching binding requirements are to the fore. Legislation is formulated in the Rational Energy Utilization Act, originally passed in 1979 and re-structured in 1995, as well as the Basic Energy Act of 2006 as part of a basic framework to deal with pressing energy problems.