Nepal is a country of extreme diversities. The altitudes range from a mere 70 m above sea level in her southern plains up to the highest peak of the world with almost 9.000 m. The distance between these two levels is only 120 km, and within this short distance all the climatical zones of the earth can be found, with their corresponding flora and fauna. Whilst the general direction of the mountain ranges is roughly east to west, all the great rivers flow transversally north to south. The population is multi ethnical and even multi-racial. To complicate the matter further, ethnic groups have no separate settlement areas, but the settlement pattern is a thoroughly mixed one, with ethnic majorities here and there. Since 1969 I attempt to work out an ethnical demography of the country. The first results, concerning the middle part of the country, were published in 1974. They cover an area of about 1/4 of the country and approximately 1/3 of her population.