In the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan), the Han majority and the indigenous people live side by side. These indigenous minority groups have always resided in the territory of the ROC. They differ from the majority of the population with regard to their language, culture, and history and have had to fight continuously for recognition as minorities. The crucial question is how to legally substantiate minority rights and introduce adequate legislation for indigenous people in a setting of "deep diversity". This term was introduced in the corresponding Canadian debate by, among others, Charles Taylor to characterize conflicts between ethnic and cultural groups that, on principle, oppose integration. The indigenous people in Taiwan consider themselves as having an own culture and identity and they make a claim for control and authority over political and social institutions in an enclosed territory. In this article, it is shown that "national minority rights" should be recognized and how these can be realized.