In many regions of the world the process of globalization triggered new conservative counter movements highlighting the autochthonous elements of the specific cultures. In China, the discussion started during the 1980s and developed throughout the 1990s into a highly political and ideological battle. The title of this paper refers to a highly popular Anglo-American discussion from the 1990s which questioned the role of Confucianism for the Chinese modernization process. In these discussions, modernization is linked mainly to industrialization and modem capitalism. The Chinese discussions on a specific "Chinese modernity" are manifold, linking modernity with the enlightenment movement of 4 May 1919 as well as with the adaptation of modem technologies and cultural practices. This article focusses on the arguments given for a specifically Chinese modernity and the specifically "Chinese" problems of modernity. It discusses the role Confucianism plays in Chinese debates on modernity by focussing on the different explanations given and patterns applied for a characterization of Chinese modernization.